Avalanches Deutsch Inhaltsverzeichnis
Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für avalanche im Online-Wörterbuch toowoo.co (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'avalanche' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für avalanche im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. To analyse the avalanche danger, a knowledge of both the basic relationships between weather and the snowpack and the relationships between snow layering. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'avalanche' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache.
Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für avalanche im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'avalanches' im kostenlosen Portugiesisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'avalanche' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
Avalanches Deutsch - NavigationsmenüSubstantiv Verb. Synonyme für "avalanche". Neuen Eintrag schreiben. However, since snow conditions strongly vary from year to year, there will still be weather situations in the future, that are favorable for forest avalanches.. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'avalanches' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'avalanches' im kostenlosen Portugiesisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Avalanches“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Water problems in the Carpathian Forest Avalanches, floods and lack of. [1–3] toowoo.co Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „avalanche“: [1–3] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „avalanche“:  toowoo.co avalanche - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. avalanches: v 3rd person singular The avalanche crushed five ski chalets, but there were no casualties. Philadelphia Magazine. Avalanches are most common during winter or spring but glacier movements may cause ice and snow avalanches at any time of year. Snowstorms and rainstorms are important contributors to avalanche danger. Namespaces Article Talk. In think, Windows Auf Deutsch Umstellen very, in coastal mountains, such as the Cordillera del Paine region of Patagoniadeep snowpacks collect on vertical and even overhanging rock faces.
In particular, in coastal mountains, such as the Cordillera del Paine region of Patagonia , deep snowpacks collect on vertical and even overhanging rock faces.
The slope angle that can allow moving snow to accelerate depends on a variety of factors such as the snow's shear strength which is itself dependent upon crystal form and the configuration of layers and inter-layer interfaces.
The snowpack on slopes with sunny exposures is strongly influenced by sunshine. Diurnal cycles of thawing and refreezing can stabilize the snowpack by promoting settlement.
Strong freeze-thaw cycles result in the formation of surface crusts during the night and of unstable surface snow during the day.
Slopes in the lee of a ridge or of another wind obstacle accumulate more snow and are more likely to include pockets of deep snow, wind slabs , and cornices , all of which, when disturbed, may result in avalanche formation.
Conversely, the snowpack on a windward slope is often much shallower than on a lee slope. Avalanches and avalanche paths share common elements: a start zone where the avalanche originates, a track along which the avalanche flows, and a runout zone where the avalanche comes to rest.
The debris deposit is the accumulated mass of the avalanched snow once it has come to rest in the runout zone.
For the image at left, many small avalanches form in this avalanche path every year, but most of these avalanches do not run the full vertical or horizontal length of the path.
The frequency with which avalanches form in a given area is known as the return period. The start zone of an avalanche must be steep enough to allow snow to accelerate once set in motion, additionally convex slopes are less stable than concave slopes, because of the disparity between the tensile strength of snow layers and their compressive strength.
The composition and structure of the ground surface beneath the snowpack influences the stability of the snowpack, either being a source of strength or weakness.
Avalanches are unlikely to form in very thick forests, but boulders and sparsely distributed vegetation can create weak areas deep within the snowpack through the formation of strong temperature gradients.
Full-depth avalanches avalanches that sweep a slope virtually clean of snow cover are more common on slopes with smooth ground, such as grass or rock slabs.
Generally speaking, avalanches follow drainages down-slope, frequently sharing drainage features with summertime watersheds. At and below tree line , avalanche paths through drainages are well defined by vegetation boundaries called trim lines , which occur where avalanches have removed trees and prevented regrowth of large vegetation.
Engineered drainages, such as the avalanche dam on Mount Stephen in Kicking Horse Pass , have been constructed to protect people and property by redirecting the flow of avalanches.
Deep debris deposits from avalanches will collect in catchments at the terminus of a run out, such as gullies and river beds. When the incidence of human triggered avalanches is normalized by the rates of recreational use, however, hazard increases uniformly with slope angle, and no significant difference in hazard for a given exposure direction can be found.
The snowpack is composed of ground-parallel layers that accumulate over the winter. Each layer contains ice grains that are representative of the distinct meteorological conditions during which the snow formed and was deposited.
Once deposited, a snow layer continues to evolve under the influence of the meteorological conditions that prevail after deposition.
For an avalanche to occur, it is necessary that a snowpack have a weak layer or instability below a slab of cohesive snow.
In practice the formal mechanical and structural factors related to snowpack instability are not directly observable outside of laboratories, thus the more easily observed properties of the snow layers e.
This results in two principal sources of uncertainty in determining snowpack stability based on snow structure: First, both the factors influencing snow stability and the specific characteristics of the snowpack vary widely within small areas and time scales, resulting in significant difficulty extrapolating point observations of snow layers across different scales of space and time.
Second, the relationship between readily observable snowpack characteristics and the snowpack's critical mechanical properties has not been completely developed.
While the deterministic relationship between snowpack characteristics and snowpack stability is still a matter of ongoing scientific study, there is a growing empirical understanding of the snow composition and deposition characteristics that influence the likelihood of an avalanche.
Observation and experience has shown that newly fallen snow requires time to bond with the snow layers beneath it, especially if the new snow falls during very cold and dry conditions.
If ambient air temperatures are cold enough, shallow snow above or around boulders, plants, and other discontinuities in the slope, weakens from rapid crystal growth that occurs in the presence of a critical temperature gradient.
Large, angular snow crystals are indicators of weak snow, because such crystals have fewer bonds per unit volume than small, rounded crystals that pack tightly together.
Consolidated snow is less likely to slough than loose powdery layers or wet isothermal snow; however, consolidated snow is a necessary condition for the occurrence of slab avalanches , and persistent instabilities within the snowpack can hide below well-consolidated surface layers.
Uncertainty associated with the empirical understanding of the factors influencing snow stability leads most professional avalanche workers to recommend conservative use of avalanche terrain relative to current snowpack instability.
Avalanches can only occur in a standing snowpack. Typically winter seasons at high latitudes, high altitudes, or both have weather that is sufficiently unsettled and cold enough for precipitated snow to accumulate into a seasonal snowpack.
Continentality , through its potentiating influence on the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, is an important factor in the evolution of instabilities, and consequential occurrence of avalanches.
Conversely, proximity to coastal environments moderates the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, and results in a faster stabilization of the snowpack after storm cycles.
Among the critical factors controlling snowpack evolution are: heating by the sun, radiational cooling , vertical temperature gradients in standing snow, snowfall amounts, and snow types.
Generally, mild winter weather will promote the settlement and stabilization of the snowpack; conversely, very cold, windy, or hot weather will weaken the snowpack.
At temperatures close to the freezing point of water, or during times of moderate solar radiation, a gentle freeze-thaw cycle will take place.
The melting and refreezing of water in the snow strengthens the snowpack during the freezing phase and weakens it during the thawing phase.
A rapid rise in temperature, to a point significantly above the freezing point of water, may cause avalanche formation at any time of year.
Persistent cold temperatures can either prevent new snow from stabilizing or destabilize the existing snowpack.
These angular crystals, which bond poorly to one another and the surrounding snow, often become a persistent weakness in the snowpack.
When a slab lying on top of a persistent weakness is loaded by a force greater than the strength of the slab and persistent weak layer, the persistent weak layer can fail and generate an avalanche.
Any wind stronger than a light breeze can contribute to a rapid accumulation of snow on sheltered slopes downwind.
Wind slab forms quickly and, if present, weaker snow below the slab may not have time to adjust to the new load. Even on a clear day, wind can quickly load a slope with snow by blowing snow from one place to another.
Top-loading occurs when wind deposits snow from the top of a slope; cross-loading occurs when wind deposits snow parallel to the slope.
When a wind blows over the top of a mountain, the leeward, or downwind, side of the mountain experiences top-loading, from the top to the bottom of that lee slope.
When the wind blows across a ridge that leads up the mountain, the leeward side of the ridge is subject to cross-loading.
Cross-loaded wind-slabs are usually difficult to identify visually. Snowstorms and rainstorms are important contributors to avalanche danger.
Heavy snowfall will cause instability in the existing snowpack, both because of the additional weight and because the new snow has insufficient time to bond to underlying snow layers.
Rain has a similar effect. In the short-term, rain causes instability because, like a heavy snowfall, it imposes an additional load on the snowpack; and, once rainwater seeps down through the snow, it acts as a lubricant, reducing the natural friction between snow layers that holds the snowpack together.
Most avalanches happen during or soon after a storm. Daytime exposure to sunlight will rapidly destabilize the upper layers of the snowpack if the sunlight is strong enough to melt the snow, thereby reducing its hardness.
During clear nights, the snowpack can re-freeze when ambient air temperatures fall below freezing, through the process of long-wave radiative cooling, or both.
Radiative heat loss occurs when the night air is significantly cooler than the snowpack, and the heat stored in the snow is re-radiated into the atmosphere.
When a slab avalanche forms, the slab disintegrates into increasingly smaller fragments as the snow travels downhill. If the fragments become small enough the outer layer of the avalanche, called a saltation layer, takes on the characteristics of a fluid.
When sufficiently fine particles are present they can become airborne and, given a sufficient quantity of airborne snow, this portion of the avalanche can become separated from the bulk of the avalanche and travel a greater distance as a powder snow avalanche.
Driving an avalanche is the component of the avalanche's weight parallel to the slope; as the avalanche progresses any unstable snow in its path will tend to become incorporated, so increasing the overall weight.
This force will increase as the steepness of the slope increases, and diminish as the slope flattens.
Resisting this are a number of components that are thought to interact with each other: the friction between the avalanche and the surface beneath; friction between the air and snow within the fluid; fluid-dynamic drag at the leading edge of the avalanche; shear resistance between the avalanche and the air through which it is passing, and shear resistance between the fragments within the avalanche itself.
An avalanche will continue to accelerate until the resistance exceeds the forward force. Attempts to model avalanche behaviour date from the early 20th century, notably the work of Professor Lagotala in preparation for the Winter Olympics in Chamonix.
Voellmy and popularised following the publication in of his Ueber die Zerstoerungskraft von Lawinen On the Destructive Force of Avalanches.
Voellmy used a simple empirical formula, treating an avalanche as a sliding block of snow moving with a drag force that was proportional to the square of the speed of its flow: .
He and others subsequently derived other formulae that take other factors into account, with the Voellmy-Salm-Gubler and the Perla-Cheng-McClung models becoming most widely used as simple tools to model flowing as opposed to powder snow avalanches.
Since the s many more sophisticated models have been developed. Preventative measures are employed in areas where avalanches pose a significant threat to people, such as ski resorts , mountain towns, roads, and railways.
There are several ways to prevent avalanches and lessen their power and develop preventative measures to reduce the likelihood and size of avalanches by disrupting the structure of the snowpack, while passive measures reinforce and stabilize the snowpack in situ.
The simplest active measure is repeatedly traveling on a snowpack as snow accumulates; this can be by means of boot-packing, ski-cutting, or machine grooming.
Explosives are used extensively to prevent avalanches, by triggering smaller avalanches that break down instabilities in the snowpack, and removing overburden that can result in larger avalanches.
Explosive charges are delivered by a number of methods including hand-tossed charges, helicopter-dropped bombs, Gazex concussion lines, and ballistic projectiles launched by air cannons and artillery.
Passive preventive systems such as snow fences and light walls can be used to direct the placement of snow. Snow builds up around the fence, especially the side that faces the prevailing winds.
Downwind of the fence, snow buildup is lessened. This is caused by the loss of snow at the fence that would have been deposited and the pickup of the snow that is already there by the wind, which was depleted of snow at the fence.
When there is a sufficient density of trees , they can greatly reduce the strength of avalanches. They hold snow in place and when there is an avalanche, the impact of the snow against the trees slows it down.
Trees can either be planted or they can be conserved, such as in the building of a ski resort, to reduce the strength of avalanches.
In many areas, regular avalanche tracks can be identified and precautions can be taken to minimise damage, such as the prevention of development in these areas.
To mitigate the effect of avalanches the construction of artificial barriers can be very effective in reducing avalanche damage.
Learn how to properly use safety equipment. Sign up for alerts on current avalanche dangers. Get proper equipment to protect yourself from head injuries and create air pockets.
Use devices to support rescue. Always have a buddy, preferably one familiar with the area. Prepare NOW The most important actions you can take to survive an avalanche are done before it happens: Learn about your local avalanche risk.
Sign up for alerts from a U. Forest Service Avalanche Center near you. Your community may also have a local warning system. Learn the signs of an avalanche and how to use safety and rescue equipment.
Receive first aid training so you can recognize and treat suffocation, hypothermia, traumatic injury and shock. Travel with a guide who knows which locations to avoid.
Hung Medien. Retrieved 3 March Modular Recordings. Editorial Reviews. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 9 September Prometheus Global Media.
Rovi Corporation. Pitchfork Media, Inc. Archived from the original on 13 January Philadelphia Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 April Interviewed by Triple J.
Triple J. Paste Media Group. Retrieved 31 December Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 2 May David Berman]".
Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 13 April Rolling Stone Australia. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 24 May Rip It Up.
Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 21 February — via Instagram. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on 22 MayLawinen sind vorprogrammiert. Wollen Sie einen Satz übersetzen? We can also not grant any reimbursement or extension in the event of bad weather, risk of avalanchesearly departure, cessation of operation caused by the weather or closure of ski slopes. Es ist ein Fehler aufgetreten. Link haben Feedback zu unseren Online Wörterbüchern? However, since snow conditions strongly vary from year to year, there will Verloren Deutschland be weather situations in the future, that are favorable for forest avalanches. Die Gammastrahlung dringt in die Erdatmosphäre ein und löste dort Lawinen von Sekundärteilchen aus, die blaues Cherenkovlicht verursachen, das bis zum Erdboden vordringt. The Avalanches continue until there are no more wins. Zu diesem Zweck bauten sie in Davos ein erstes Laborgebäude aus Schnee. Schneesturz masculine Maskulinum m avalanche. The gamma radiation enters Earth's atmosphere where continue reading triggers avalanches of Gladbach Tipp Schalke particles that cause blue Cherenkov light reaching down link the ground. Übersetzung Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme new Documents.
Avalanches Deutsch - Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)Tag und Nacht gingen Lawinen ab. Ergebnisse im Wyhlidal Geografie-Fachwörterbuch anzeigen. After a short time a bus came and the bus driver told us, that indeed an avalanche blocked the road and in a half hour the road would be opened for the last time at this day. Avalanches auf dem Maximum, bis es keine weiteren Gewinne mehr gibt. So agility and fast response are required. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Vielen Dank! Biodiversity has suffered in the wake of overgrazing and over-exploitation of here forests for fuelwood and pasture for sheep. Registrieren Einloggen. Regen Lawinen sind vorprogrammiert. Hallo Welt. Lawinen ab.
Interferometric Radars, high-resolution Cameras, or motion sensors can monitor instable areas over a long term, lasting from days to years.
Experts interpret the recorded data and are able to recognize upcoming ruptures in order to initiate appropriate measures.
Such systems e. Modern radar technology enables the monitoring of large areas and the localization of avalanches at any weather condition, by day and by night.
Complex alarm systems are able to detect avalanches within a short time in order to close e. An example of such a system is installed on the only access road of Zermatt in Switzerland.
The system automatically closes the road by activating several barriers and traffic lights within seconds such that no people are harmed.
Avalanche accidents are broadly differentiated into 2 categories: accidents in recreational settings, and accidents in residential, industrial, and transportation settings.
This distinction is motivated by the observed difference in the causes of avalanche accidents in the two settings. In the recreational setting most accidents are caused by the people involved in the avalanche.
In a study, Jamieson et al. In contrast, all of the accidents in the residential, industrial, and transportation settings were due to spontaneous natural avalanches.
Because of the difference in the causes of avalanche accidents, and the activities pursued in the two settings, avalanche and disaster management professionals have developed two related preparedness, rescue, and recovery strategies for each of the settings.
Three days later 62 railroad workers were killed in the Rogers Pass avalanche in British Columbia , Canada. During World War I , an estimated 40, to 80, soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused by artillery fire.
In the northern hemisphere winter of — approximately avalanches were recorded in a three-month period throughout the Alps in Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
This series of avalanches killed around people and was termed the Winter of Terror. A mountain climbing camp on Lenin Peak, in what is now Kyrgyzstan, was wiped out in when an earthquake triggered a large avalanche that overran the camp.
In , the Bayburt Üzengili avalanche killed 60 individuals in Üzengili in the province of Bayburt , Turkey. The mayor of Chamonix was convicted of second-degree murder for not evacuating the area, but received a suspended sentence.
The small Austrian village of Galtür was hit by the Galtür avalanche in The village was thought to be in a safe zone but the avalanche was exceptionally large and flowed into the village.
Thirty-one people died. Joel Roof was snowboarding recreationally in this backcountry, bowl-shaped run and triggered the avalanche. He was carried nearly 2, feet to the base of the mountain and was not successfully rescued.
In Europe , the avalanche risk is widely rated on the following scale, which was adopted in April to replace the earlier non-standard national schemes.
Descriptions were last updated in May to enhance uniformity. In France, most avalanche deaths occur at risk levels 3 and 4.
In Switzerland most occur at levels 2 and 3. It is thought that this may be due to national differences of interpretation when assessing the risks.
Avalanche size: [ citation needed ]. In the United States and Canada, the following avalanche danger scale is used. Descriptors vary depending on country.
There are nine different types of avalanche problems:  . The Canadian classification for avalanche size is based upon the consequences of the avalanche.
Half sizes are commonly used. The size of avalanches are classified using two scales; size relative to destructive force or D-scale and size relative to the avalanche path or R-scale.
Slab avalanche hazard analysis can be done using the Rutschblock Test. The result is a rating of slope stability on a seven step scale.
Climate change-caused temperature increases and changes in precipitation patterns will likely differ between the different mountain regions.
At lower elevations a long-term reduction in the number of avalanches corresponding to a decrease in snow, and a short-term increase in the number of wet avalanches are predicted.
Media related to Avalanche chute at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Snow Avalanches. This article is about the natural event.
For other uses, see Avalanche disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Avalanche control. Main article: Avalanche rescue.
See also: List of avalanches. Main article: List of avalanches by death toll. Archived from the original on Retrieved Avalanche triggering by sound: Myth and truth PDF.
Based on order of magnitude estimates of the pressure amplitude of various sources that cause elastic or pressure sound waves it can be ruled out that shouting or loud noise can trigger snow slab avalanches.
The amplitudes are at least about two orders of magnitude smaller than known efficient triggers. Triggering by sound really is a myth.
Gravity currents in the environment and the laboratory. Natural Disasters. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 25 January Ober die Zerstorunskraft von Lawinen.
Global and Planetary Change, —50". Retrieved 28 August Retrieved October 23, Canadian Avalanche Association. Archived from the original PDF on 25 January Retrieved 7 March Infobase Publishing.
July 18, The New York Times. Historical background of Lenin Peak. The first expedition to Lenin Peak". University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Backcountry Avalanche Awareness. Pagosa Springs, CO. American Avalanche Association. Avalanche at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Landslide Avalanche Mudflow Debris flow Lahar. Seismic hazard Seismic risk Soil liquefaction. Pyroclastic flow Volcanic ash.
Roads may be closed, or vehicles may be advised not to stop on the roadside. Avoid areas of increased risk, such as slopes steeper than 30 degrees or areas under steep slopes.
Know the signs of increased danger, including recent avalanches and shooting cracks across slopes. Wear a helmet to help reduce head injuries and create air pockets.
Wear an avalanche beacon to help rescuers locate you. Use an avalanche airbag that may help you from being completely buried. Carry a collapsible avalanche probe and a small shovel to help rescue others.
If your partner or others are buried, call and then begin to search if it is safe to do so. If you have the proper training, treat others for suffocation, hypothermia, traumatic injury or shock.
Hypothermia is an unusually low body temperature. A body temperature below 95 degrees is an emergency. Signs: Shivering, exhaustion, confusion, fumbling hands, memory loss, slurred speech and drowsiness.
The group returned to live performances in , with a performance at Australian music festival Splendour in the Grass.
Listed alphabetically:   . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Australian band. For other uses, see Avalanche disambiguation.
Plunderphonics sampledelia hip hop neo-psychedelia dance disco electronic. Main article: Since I Left You.
Main article: Wildflower The Avalanches album. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: The Avalanches discography. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 7 September Australian Rock Database.
Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 13 February The London Evening Standard. Retrieved 8 September Prahran, Vic : Hardie Grant Books.
Note: limited preview available for [on-line] version. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 22 January The Courier.
Fairfax Media. Retrieved 11 September The Sydney Morning Herald. Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. Archived from the original on 6 February Hung Medien.
Retrieved 3 March Modular Recordings. Editorial Reviews. Official Charts Company.